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英国白金汉大学论文代写:现实主义

英国白金汉大学论文代写



英国白金汉大学论文代写:现实主义


自过去几十年以来,随着主要在美利坚合众国的相关学科以及欧洲大陆的几个部分(Brown,2001),在理论化国际关系中出现了一些主要趋势。然而,在国际关系理论的这些当前发展之间,重要的是要知道这一概念作为理论推进的极限和本质。

在国际关系的考虑下,有许多理论观点或一般理论,其中之一就是现实主义。它也被称为政治现实主义,它提供了一个强调冲突和竞争方面的国际政治背景的观点(Bahgat,2011)。这与自由主义或理想主义的概念形成鲜明对比,后者倾向于强调合作。众所周知,现实主义者正在考虑在国际背景下担任国家背景的主要表现者,这些国家表现出对个人安全的关注,采取行动说服他们个人的国家利益,并且为获得权力而苦苦挣扎。然而,考虑到对现实主义的负面看法,在规范和道德对国家间关系的重要性方面,人们常常怀疑自我利益和权力(Cawkwell,1997)。简而言之,可以说,在国际关系和事务的背景下,现实主义强调要忍受各州之间发生冲突的倾向。
然而,自近几年以来,现实主义自过去20年以来一直面临着一些批评,因为许多人批评现实主义与世界无关,以及用于描述和系统化世界的简化术语。毫无疑问,与所有其他与国际关系相关的理论一样,现实主义也存在某些不完善之处。并且,不能因为考虑普遍问题和提供通用解决方案而提出这一理论(Jackson,2003)。按照经典现实主义思想家尼科洛·马基雅维利的说法,拥有更多权力的愿望是现实主义理论的主要基础,并且具有强烈的根源,人性的缺陷呈现出国际关系的本质。



英国白金汉大学论文代写:现实主义


Since the last few decades, a number of major trends have been involved and emerged in theorizing international relations following the related academic discipline mainly in the United States of America along with several parts of continental Europe (Brown, 2001). However, between these considerably current developments in the theory of international relations, it is important to know the limit and nature of this concept for being advanced as theory.

Under the consideration of international relations, there are a number of theoretical perspectives or general theories, one of which is Realism. Also referred to as political realism, it provides a view of the international political background that lay stress on the conflictual and competitive side (Bahgat, 2011). This most contrasts the concept of liberalism or idealism that holds the tendency to lay emphasis on cooperation. Realists are known to be considering the principal performers in the arena of international background for being states, which show concern towards individual security, taking actions to persuade their individual national interests, and have been struggling a lot for gaining power. However, considering the negative view of realism, huge emphasis is laid upon self- interest and power often under scepticism with respect to the significance of norms and ethics to relations between the states (Cawkwell, 1997). In short, it can be stated that in context with international relations and affairs, realism lays emphasis to endure the propensity for the occurrence of conflict amongst the states.

However, since recent times, realism has been facing several criticisms since the past 20 years as many criticise it to be irrelevant to the world and the simplified terms used for describing and systematizing the world. There is no denial in the fact that like all of the other theories related to international relations, there are certain imperfections of realism as well. And, the theory cannot be claimed for considering universal issues and providing universal solution (Jackson, 2003). As per Niccolo Machiavelli, the classic realist thinker, the desire for having more power is the main base for the theory of realism and has a strong root with the flawed features of humanity that present the nature of international relations.



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