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新西兰论文代写奥塔哥大学:论收入不平等的增长

新西兰论文代写:论收入不平等的增长



新西兰论文代写收入不平等的增长及其原因

在2000年至2006年期间,尽管经济复苏,美国陷入贫困的美国人数量增长了15%。到2006年,美国有超过3300万工人的平均小时收入低于10美元,低于支持四口之家的贫困水平。低收入工人的工作条件也不好,因为他们没有提供病假,医疗保险或雇主的养老保险。在同一时期内,企业利润增长13%,工人生产力增长15%,但工人工资保持平稳。从这个角度来看,与穷人相比,富人变得更富有。从1979年到2007年,家庭收入增加了,其中前五名的收入增长了65%,而倒数第五名增长了18%。因此,对富人来说,他们增加了财富,他们的馅饼增加了其他人的一些份额。这是目前的经济状况导致更多的收入不平等。

一些突出的收入不平等的原因是技术和教育,全球化和贸易,最后是政府政策。技术和教育与收入不平等有关,因为对技能和教育水平较高的工人的需求很高,因此他们的工资水平很高。技能溢价是由于缺乏可用的技能来满足日益增长的需求。较高的工资保费一直影响到没有技能和教育的其他员工的工资。由于美国大型企业的贸易和离岸外包活动增加,全球化和贸易一直被视为美国收入不平等的原因。世界范围内的增加使美国经济的进口增加,从而导致美国境内生产的类似产品遭受失业。离岸外包也导致就业机会和工资下降。低工资和低就业率增加了不平等差距。另一方面,政府政策也在收入不平等话语中发挥作用,因为政策的通过降低了工资和就业。自1970年代后期以来,导致收入不平等增加的一些政策包括去工会化,放松管制,税收变革,股东革命,联邦货币政策等。然而,可以实施上述原因的解决方案,但需要来自政府,雇员,雇主,组织和工会的所有利益相关者的贡献。 

在美国实施解决上述收入不平等问题的解决方案时,需要确定根本问题以提高解决方案的有效性。在技术和教育方面,缺乏教育是主要驱动因素。因此,通过增加对人口的教育以及就业培训机会,这将导致高技能劳动力的生产增加。贸易和全球化的第二个原因是要通过提高美国出口和美元贬值的竞争力的政策解决方案来解决。在处理增加收入不平等的政府政策的原因时,建议政策改变,这将导致工会的增加,提高最低工资,监督华尔街,以及维持货币政策的全职就业。


新西兰论文代写Growth of Income Inequality and its Causes

Between the years 2000-2006 despite and economic recovery, the number of Americans languishing in poverty increased by a significant 15 percent. By the year 2006, more than 33 million workers in the U.S were earning an average hourly rate of less than $10 which is below the poverty level in supporting a family of four. The working conditions of low-wage workers are also not favorable as they are not provided sick days, health insurance, or pension cover from their employers. Within the same period, there was a 13 percent increase in corporate profits and 15 percent worker productivity, yet the wages for the workers remained flat. From this perspective, the rich got richer when compared to the poor. Between 1979 and 2007, there was an increase in household income in which the top fifth experienced a 65 percent rise compared to the bottom fifth with a meagre 18 percent rise. Therefore, for the rich they increased their wealth and their piece of pie increased taking some of the shares from everyone else. This is the current economic situation which leads to more income inequality.

Some of the highlighted causes for the income inequality are technology and education, globalization and trade, and finally government policies. The technology and education is related to income inequality as there is a high demand for workers with high levels of skills and education and therefore, they are offered large wage premiums. The skill premium results from the lack of available skills to meet with the increasing demand. The higher wage premiums consistently affect the wages of other employees without skills and education. Globalization and trade has been highlighted as cause for income inequality in America due to the increased trade and offshoring activities of large U.S corporations. The increased around the world has allowed increased imports into the U.S economy hence leading to job loss to similar goods produced within the U.S. Offshoring has also led to decreased employment opportunities and wages. Low wages and low rates of employment increase the inequality gap. On the other hand, government policies have also played part in income inequality discourse as policies were passed that reduced wages and employment. Some of the policies since the late 1970s which led to increased income inequality include de-unionization, deregulation, tax changes, the shareholder revolution, federal monetary policies among many others (Baranoff, 2015). However, solutions for the above causes can be implemented but it requires the contribution of all stakeholders from the government, employees, employers, organizations, and trade unions.

In implementing solutions for the above causes of income inequality in America, the root problem is to be identified for better effectiveness of the solutions. In the technology and education aspect, the lack of education is the primary driver. Therefore, by increasing education to the population as well as job training opportunities, this will lead to higher production of high skilled labor. The second cause of trade and globalization is to be solved by policy solutions which will increase the competitiveness of U.S exports and depreciation of the U.S dollar. In tackling the cause of government policies that increase income inequality, policy change is recommended in which will lead to increased unionization, raising minimum wages, supervision of Wall Street, and a maintained full-employment focus in monetary policy.



新西兰论文代写占领运动对美国收入不平等的响应

占领运动已被确定为社会和经济运动。从2011年9月17日开始,它已经在全球蔓延。占领华尔街运动的特点是反对运动,因为它反对经济和社会地位。这场运动是无领导的,它包括来自各种族,性别和政治分歧的人,因为它在争取1%至99%的经济和社会平等的同时带来团结和社会积极性。该运动的各个方面已经将全球不平等的认识纳入讨论范围,并因此导致了世界范围内类似的运动,以同样的名称命名,但特定于其环境。这个运动还涉及向全世界的群众提供教育,并鼓励他们站出来反对企业的贪婪。 Occupy集团的行动已记录在抗议者在金融中心设立营地,帐篷和各种抗议手段的各大洲。 

占领运动解决收入不平等问题的方式之一是试图教育群众,从而减少99%的大规模开采,并找到公平分配收入的方法,并提高99%的提高能力以改善他们的经济状况。革命可以用于实现资源和物质资本的再分配。在Kelley和Klein(1981)提供的一个例子中,它涉及到1952年的玻利维亚革命,农民农民被政府剥削并反抗他们的政府。革命涉及暴力,农民农民能够击败国民军,从而控制了国家首都。接管政府帮助他们采取行动,在农民和农民中重新分配财富。占领运动和玻利维亚革命除了暴力的主要区别之外在很多方面都是相似的。玻利维亚革命者采取了暴力措施来实现他们的目标。

占领运动的目标是建立一个更平等的社会。抗议者认为,这只能通过对华尔街的大型金融机构和企业实施更严格的规定才能实现。这个解决方案的问题在于它会导致1%的重大损失,因此它不能很好地解决这个问题,并且导致该运动有时被极端的暴力压制。示威者们正在举行大会,因为他们正在计划前进的道路,以争取他们关切的平等代表权。


新西兰论文代写Response of Occupy Movement on Income Inequality in America

The Occupy Movement has been identified as both a social and economic movement. Started on September 17, 2011 it has spread globally ever since. The Occupy Wall Street movement is characterized as an opposition movement as it opposes the economic and social status. The movement is leaderless and it includes people from all races, gender, and political divides as it brings solidarity and social activism in fighting for economic and social equality between the 1 percent and the 99 percent. The aspects of the movement have brought the awareness of global inequality into discussion and it has hence led to similar movements around the world under the same umbrella name but specific to their environment. The movement has also been involved in offering education to the masses around the world, and encouraging them stand up against the corporate greed. The actions of the Occupy group have been recorded in every continent where the protestors set up camps, tents, and various means of protest in the center of financial districts .

One of the ways the Occupy Movement is tackling income inequality, is by trying to educate the masses hence reducing the mass exploitation of the 99 percent, and to find ways to redistribute income fairly, as well as improving the abilities of the 99 percent to improve their economic conditions. Revolutions can be used in achieving redistribution of resources and physical capital (Kelley & Klein, 1981). In an example provided by Kelley and Klein (1981) it involves the 1952 Bolivian revolution in which the peasant farmers felt exploited by the government and revolted against their government. The revolution was involved violence where the peasant farmers were able to defeat the National Army hence taking control of the country capital. The take over from the government helped them to take actions and redistributed wealth among the country farmers and peasants. The Occupy Movement and the Bolivian Revolution are similar in many aspects apart from the key difference of violence. The Bolivian revolutionaries took violent measures to achieve their goals.

The Occupy Movement’s goal is to create a more egalitarian society. The protestors believe that this can only be achieved through enforcing stricter regulations on large financial institutions and corporations on Wall Street. The problem with this solution is that it will cause significant loses to the top 1 percent hence it does not settle well with them and this has led to the Movement been repressed with extreme violence at times. The protestors are holding general assemblies as they plan their way forward in fighting for equal representation of their concerns as well.



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