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Literature Review代写:父子关系和育儿风格的理论基础

美国代写Literature Review



最近Assignmentgo帮助一位来自美国的留学生完成了2500字的Literature Review代写: 


国家:美国 

专业/学科:education 

服务类型:B 

文章类型:Literature Review 

文章字数:2500



美国论文代写父子关系和育儿风格的理论基础

在20世纪50年代,许多心理学家对儿童发展进行了研究。他们确定父母与子女有密切的关系。Erik Erikson在1950年发表了他的八阶段人类发展理论作为心理学理论,它已被广泛用于理解儿童发展前三个生命阶段是婴儿,幼儿和学龄前儿童,而他们最亲密和最依赖的关系是父母和家庭。在第一阶段,婴儿应该学会信任和安慰,面对新环境时可能会感到焦虑。幼儿可以根据社交行为要求进行表演,并发展自我控制和自我保健技能。学龄前儿童的个性应该积极,好奇和负责任。父母是这三个阶段影响儿童发展的重要因素。在幼儿阶段,如果父母过于镇压或过于保护,孩子可能对自己的能力没有信心,因此依赖于他们的父母。或者如果父母在探索阶段对孩子施加太多限制,会削弱他们探索的欲望,导致他们不愿意面对新的刺激。根据埃里克森的说法,孩子们将通过解决问题和适应社会环境逐渐建立自己的品格。如果父母过分地干扰这一过程或过于保护,他们会阻碍儿童面对或解决困难的机会。这些行为可能会对其发展产生重大影响。因此,Erikson的想法揭示了父母的行为和养育方式对儿童发展的重要性。


美国论文代写:Theoretical Basis of parent-child relationship and parenting styles(partial)

During the 1950s, many psychologists studied on child development. They established that parents have a close relationship with their children.Erik Erikson published his eight stage theory of human development as a psychosocial theory in 1950, an it has been extensively used in understanding child development The first three life stages are infant, toddler and preschool, and the closest and dependent relationship of them are parents and family. In the first stage, infant should learn to trust and being comforted, they may feel anxious when facing the new environment. The toddler can perform according to social behaviour requirements, and develop self-control and self-care skills. And the personalities of preschool children should be active, curious and responsible. Parents are an important factor that affects children’s development in these three stages. In the Toddler period, if parents are too repressive or over protective, children may not be confident in their own ability, hence being dependent on their parents. Or if parents impose too many restrictions on the child in the exploratory period, it would weaken their desire to explore, causing them not willing to face new stimuli. According to Erikson, children would gradually build up their own character through problem solving and adapting to social environment. If parents disturb this process too much or become too protective, they would hinder the opportunities for children to face or resolve difficulties. These acts could have a significant impact on their development. Therefore, Erikson’s ideas revealed the importance of parent’s behaviour and rearing styles to children’s development.



美国论文代写父子关系和育儿风格的理论基础

此外,维果茨基的近代发展区(ZPD)的概念在当今的认知心理学和教育领域中有很多应用。 ZPD探索了一个学习环境,通过一个有经验和较高技能的人指导一个孩子,这个人可以是父母,老师和监护人。维果茨基强调了养育方式与孩子的人际关系和社会发展之间的关系,他指出,孩子们通过合作和辅助而不是惩罚来发展。


美国论文代写:Theoretical Basis of parent-child relationship and parenting styles(partial)

In addition,Vygotsky’s concept of The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is much applied in today’s cognitive psychology and education fields. ZPD explores a learning environment where a child is guided through the process by someone with experience and higher skills, and that person could be parents, teachers, and guardians. Vygotsky emphasizes the relationship between parenting styles and the child’s interpersonal and social development, he pointed out that children develop through experience cooperative and assistive but not punishment.



美国论文代写父子关系和育儿风格的理论基础

Sears等人进行了一项研究,其中有379个学龄前儿童家庭参加。该研究正在调查育儿风格与儿童侵犯性,依赖性和道德行为之间的关系。他指出,父母养育的两个主要特点是温暖和控制,并且奠定了养育方式的基础框架。


美国论文代写:Theoretical Basis of parent-child relationship and parenting styles(partial)

Sears et al. (1957) conducted a study in which 379 families with preschool children participated. The study was investigating the relationships between parenting styles and children’s aggressive, dependent, and moral behaviour. He pointed out that two main characteristics of parenting were warmth and control, and lay out the basis framework of parenting styles.



美国论文代写父子关系和育儿风格的理论基础

后来,美国心理学家戴安娜鲍姆林提出了三种养育方式的原型,即宽容,威权和权威养育方式。她指出,宽容的父母经常表现出对孩子的愿望和行为的接受态度,允许他们的孩子决定做什么,并避免控制权的行使。即使孩子做了一些社会上不能接受的事情,他们也会采取不干涉或理解的态度,很少惩罚孩子,但这些宽容的父母对孩子的要求很少。专制父母根据自己严格的标准塑造和控制自己的孩子,并要求孩子绝对服从。这些父母经常无视孩子的自我意愿和愿望。他们往往会采取惩罚性和有力的措施来处理他们的孩子的不可接受的行为。权威的父母塑造和指导孩子的行为和活动,但它基于理解和尊重。当面对与孩子的分歧时,他们经常反应积极倾听和推理。当他们的孩子做错了事,这些父母可能会使用惩罚,但他们重视他们的孩子是否理解惩罚的原因以及他们行为的后果。


美国论文代写:Theoretical Basis of parent-child relationship and parenting styles(partial)

Later, American psychologistDiana Baumrind presented three prototypes of parenting styles, i.e. Permissive, Authoritarian and Authoritative parenting styles. She pointed out that permissive parents often show an acceptant attitude towards their children’s desires and behaviour, allow their children to decide what to do, and avoid the exercise of control. The permissive parents make very few demands on the child, even if the child does something socially unacceptable, they would adopt a non-interference or understanding attitude, and seldom punish the child. Authoritarian parents shape and control their child according to their own rigid standard, and demand absolute obedience from their child. These parents often disregard the self-will and desires of their child. They would often employ punitive and forceful measures to deal with their child’s unacceptable behaviour. Authoritative parents shape and direct their child’s behaviour and activities, yet it is based on understanding and respect. When faced with divergence with their child, they often react with active listening and reasoning. When their child does something wrong, these parents might use punishment, but they value whether their child understand the reasons for the punishment and the consequences of their behaviour.



美国论文代写父子关系和育儿风格的理论基础

Baumrind选择并分析了12项相关研究。她指出,对独裁父母的压制性控制和对宽容父母的保护可能会阻碍其子女学习如何解决异见和与他人冲突的机会。鉴于权威家长的尊重和爱护态度可以帮助教孩子们如何表达和支持他们自己的课程,并理解他们自己行为的后果。在权威的教养方式下,孩子可能更友善,独立,自我控制并适应社会。本文对研究有重要影响,研究中分析的许多研究都基于Baumrind的育儿风格理念。然而,Baumrind也指出,儿童的行为和发展以及父母的养育方式往往与其他变量有关,如儿童的性格,身体状况以及社会的环境和文化。


美国论文代写:Theoretical Basis of parent-child relationship and parenting styles(partial)

Baumrind (1996) selected and analysed 12 related studies. She pointed out that, the repressive control of authoritarian parents and over protection of permissive parents may both hinder the opportunities of their children to learn how to tackle dissent and conflicts with other people. Whereas the respect and loving attitude of authoritative parents could help teach the children how to express and support their own courses and to understand the consequences of their own actions. Brought up under authoritative parenting style, the child may be more friendly, independent, self -controlled and adaptive to society. This paper had important impacts on the research, many studies analysed in the research were based on Baumrind’s ideas of parenting styles. However, Baumrind also pointed out that, the behaviour and development of children, and the childrearing styles of their parents, are often related to and affected by other variables, such as the child’s character, physical condition and the environment and culture of the society.



美国论文代写父子关系和育儿风格的理论基础

Bandura(1977)提出了社会学习理论,并解释说人们通过观察他人的行为,态度和这些行为的结果来学习。着名的波波娃娃实验(Bandura,1961)展示了孩子们观察和模仿彼此的行为。在该实验中,尝试了36名年龄在3至6岁之间的男孩和36名女孩。研究人员将这些孩子分为三组,两组看着班杜拉的一个学生对一个叫做“波波娃娃”的玩具采取积极和非积极的行为,而第三组没有暴露在任何侵略性的展示中。结果显示,观察侵略性模型的儿童的行为比其他群体更积极。班杜拉还指出,个人的人格,情感以及这些行为的目的和结果是影响儿童决定是否复制这些行为的因素。这一理论对于这一时期父母与子女之间关系最密切的研究非常重要。孩子们很可能会观察和模仿父母的行为。因此,根据这个理论,父母如何照顾孩子,他们的养育方式和行为都会影响孩子的行为和发展。


美国论文代写:Theoretical Basis of parent-child relationship and parenting styles(partial)

Bandura (1977) proposed the social learning theory and explained that people learn through observing others’ behaviour, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviours. The famous Bobo doll experiment (Bandura, 1961) demonstrated children’s observing and imitate each others’ behaviour. In this experiment, 36 boys and 36 girls aged between 3 to 6 years old were tasted. The researchers divided the children into three groups, two groups watched one of Bandura’s student behaving aggressively and non-aggressively towards a toy called a 'Bobo doll', while the third group was not exposed to any aggressiveness display. The results show that children who observed the aggressive model act more aggressive than other groups. Bandura also pointed out that individual’s personality, emotions and the purpose and results of those behaviour are the factors that affect children’s decide whether or not to copy those actions. The theory is important to the research in that parent-children relationship is the closest relationship in this period. It would be most likely that children would observe and imitate parents’ behavior. Therefore, based on this theory, how parents look after their kids, their parenting styles and behavior would all affect children’s behavior and development.

 



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