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澳洲论文代写:1450年后欧洲印刷术贸易的演变

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澳洲论文代写:1450年后欧洲印刷术贸易的演变

值得注意的是,文艺复兴时期的信息技术是古登堡的印刷机。 历史认为人类历史上最伟大的创新之一就是印刷机的创新或引进。虽然历史学家认为印刷机的创新是最好的发明之一,但经济学家们确实与这一事实相矛盾,因为他们找不到任何这种创新的根源,从而改善了任何城市的经济标准。 问题是:印刷媒体革命的影响是什么? 印刷机的影响到底在哪里? 因此,该报告从一个新的角度审视了平面媒体革命,通过在1450-160欧洲创建关于书籍发明的公司级数据,并利用公司层面的数据确定印刷媒体对人力资本积累和增长的印象。


澳洲论文代写:Evolution of Printed Book trade in Europe Following 1450

It is significant to note that the Renaissance information technology was Gutenberg’s printing press. History attributes that one of the greatest innovations in human history was the innovation or introduction of a print press. Though historians identify the innovation of a print press as one of the best inventions, the economists really contradict with that fact because they cannot find any roots of such innovation improving the economic standard of any city where it was diffused. The question posed: what was the impact of the print media revolution? And where exactly was the impact of the print press imposed? The report therefore, scrutinizes the print media revolution from a new standpoint by creating a firm level data on book invention across Europe 1450-160, and using firm level data to identify the impression of print media on human capital accumulation and growth ("Evolution of the book," n.d.).



澳洲论文代写:1450年后欧洲印刷术贸易的演变

尽管15世纪印刷机出现了革命性的革命性技术发展,但人们注意到其经济性证据不足。但是,在采用现代印刷方式的欧洲二百个城市进行调查时,有近60%的人认识到这些城市采用印刷新技术后发展起来。现在,美因茨最近发明的印刷品被认为是艺术的源泉和科学的源泉。因此,技术印刷的迅速传播给了媒体联谊会带来了新的错误。在1450年德国美因茨第一次观察到印刷书籍贸易的发展。它引入了一种可移动式印刷技术,目前这种印刷技术有利于媒体和印刷机。这种创新是文艺复兴时期信息技术中最大的革命之一,它被评估为仅仅运行与互联网发展相似的最近的历史。因此,我们注意到第一台印刷机于1450年在德国美因茨成立。同时代的人注意到,技术是以知识被保存和交换的方式迎来的。因此,通过降低广播思想的范围,印刷媒体的突出冲洗位置的情况是值得怀疑的。


澳洲论文代写:Evolution of Printed Book trade in Europe Following 1450

In spite of the fact that there was great revolutionary technology development of the printing press in the 15th century, it has however, been noticed that there was less economic evidence of its associated benefits ("Book: 1450 to the Present," n.d.). But when a survey was carried out on two hundred European cities that adopted the modern way of printing, it was by much as 60 percent realized that such cities developed after adopting the new technology of printing. Now, printing that was lately invented in Mainz was recognized as the fountain of arts and the fountain of science. Therefore, the rapid diffusion of technological printing has granted and brought around a new error in the media fraternity. The evolution of printed book trade was observed first observed in Mainz Germany in the year 1450 ("Book: 1450 to the Present," n.d.). It was encompassed with the introduction of a movable type printing that facilitated the media and the press at the moment. Such an innovation was a one of the greatest revolution in the Renaissance information technology and it has been assessed that it merely runs the closest history parallel to the development of the internet. Therefore, we note that the first printing press was established in 1450 in Mainz Germany (Steinberg & Trevitt, 1996).  It was to the notice of the contemporaries that technology was ushered in a way in which knowledge was preserved and exchanged. Therefore, by lowering the extent of broadcasting ideas, it was questionable that did the prominence of print media rinse off the situation of location?



澳洲论文代写:1450年后欧洲印刷术贸易的演变

历史表明,印刷书业和印刷业是人类历史上最激进的发明之一,它是知识和观念的启蒙。因此,它消除了书写发明以来发生的一切。但是经济学家们也试图找到任何有关这种发明的总产出或人均收入的证据。因此,根据这种策略,历史数据显示出类似于着名的索洛效率悖论的困境。这表明,直到20世纪90年代中期,宏观经济生产力数据才显示出基于计算机的信息技术没有创新的效果。从新的视角审视文艺复兴时期信息技术的根本性发展是十分重要的,这是通过在欧洲围绕15世纪的印刷媒介传播城市级数据。因此,很明显,印刷机出现在欧洲1000个历史名城中约200个的1450-1500台左右。由于以下原因,印刷机仅在欧洲境内的二十个城市中扩散;首先是印刷机用于城市技术,主要为城市顾客提供产品。因此,新闻出版业的流通城市是经济理念和社会团体的萌芽,导致了现代化的发展。最后,在200个城市内推广印刷技术创新的另一个原因是因为在古代,城市规模是经济繁荣的重要标志,城市增长与宏观经济增长息息相关。


澳洲论文代写:Evolution of Printed Book trade in Europe Following 1450

History indicates that the print book trade and the printing press were among the most radical inventions in human history and it was an initiation of knowledge and ideas. Therefore, it neutralized everything that had occurred since the invention of writing. But economists are also trying and have tried to find any evidence regarding this kind of invention in regard to the measure of aggregate output or per capita income (Steinberg & Trevitt, 1996). It is therefore, according to that kind of strategies that historical data displays a dilemma similar to the famous Solow efficiency paradox. It indicates that it was until mid-1990’s that the data on macroeconomic productivity showed no effect of innovations in computer based information technology. It is important to examine the radical development in Renaissance information technology from a new perspective by assembling instituting a city level data on the dissemination of the printing press in the 15 century around Europe (Steinberg & Trevitt, 1996). It was therefore, evident that the printing press emerged in 1450-1500 around 200 out of a number of 1000 historic cities in Europe. The printing press diffused in only 2oo cities within Europe because of the following reasons; first is that the printing press was intended for an urban technology and majorly to give output for the urban patrons. Therefore, such cities where innovation of press was circulated were seedbeds of economic concepts and social groups that resulted to the occurrence of modern growth. Lastly, another reason for circulation of innovation of press technology within 200 cities was because in ancient times the sizes of the cities were significant signs of economic prosperity and city growth was attached to macroeconomic growth.



Print Books for Trade following 1450

Pervasive new technologies are often treated as if they arrived in a vacuum. However, “new” technologies are evolutional they build on and assimilate prior art, sometimes not obviously related to the new “discovery” (Steinberg & Trevitt, 1996). Thus, the printing and publishing industry that emerged in Europe in the mid fifteenth-century CE drew on existing technologies from sectors as varied as wine-making and pewter decoration. As a result of this technological advance, as soon as Europeans embraced movable type, the supply of cultural artifacts and the scope of their consumption began to change radically. Production, distribution and sale of books and ephemeral printed materials required the creation of new business models, such as international distribution networks (Steinberg & Trevitt, 1996).



In ancient times specifically in the 15 century a book was written to express an occasion or to define a situation about people (Steinberg & Trevitt, 1996). It depended to the author, type writer, typesetter and a publisher. These people are the ones that determined how interesting a book would be or would sound to the reader. In case the genre of the book was so impactful to the reader, then type writers, typesetters and the publishers would be motivated to write more books to many readers.  Just like today books were not confined within a single discipline when referred as objects of study. With that, neither literature nor economics nor history nor bibliography can justify all the intentions and aspects of the life of a book.  However, it is assessed that the major intentions of writing books from ancient times was for commercial purposes. Books were specifically for trade in early centuries and even up to recent times books are majorly written and published for sale. In the history of print books for trade, it is evident that there were different people who facilitated that movement. For instance, publishers, shippers and book sellers played a significant role in the cycle of books (Roberts, Radford, Art Gallery of South Australia, & Art Exhibitions Australia Limited, 1996). The hierarchy of persons mentioned facilitated the role of ensuring that books reached to people who needed them on commercial level. Therefore, there was always an understanding between different people so as to penetrate the market, for instance, publishers had to draw up contracts with the authors. It was also followed up with alliances with other groups of person like the booksellers, negotiations with the political fraternity. All these were measures to allocate a market for the products (books). After negotiations were facilitated shipments and publicity of the commodities were carried out (Roberts, Radford, Art Gallery of South Australia, & Art Exhibitions Australia Limited, 1996).



The pragmatic affiliation between local book invention and growth could be clarified by the fact that local experience to print media was highly connected with local production (Steinberg & Trevitt, 1996).



Local publicity was correlated with local production because trade was imperfect due to high transport costs. Therefore, the study reviews evidence symbolizing the confines on the intercity book trade. First, it is reviewed that prevailing proof from the historical literature and archival holdings. The structure associates the intention of writing books in ancient times and how books helped in media expression. Books were a vocal ingredient towards the politics of most cities in Europe at the moment. Different democracies were judged upon media expression and some used books to express their intents to the reigning governments ("Bill Grantham | Loughborough University in London - Academia.edu," n.d.). Some systems were opposed to the structure of using the media to publicize government failures. However, the print of books for trade following 1450 was an important prior towards achieving global democracy because books explained both in satisfaction and in discontent. So, most people bought books and other media printings that highlighted the oppressions different governments had caused to the people.



Therefore, it is important to note that printing of books was an outset undertaken by most profit seeking firms, so the purpose of the printed books was initially for commercial purposes. Another call for printing was due to competition that was exercised in a free market setting that externally existed in guild guidelines. For instance, the third, printing was an initiative categorized by extensive fixed costs and flawed competition. But for the fourth, inter-city trade was branded by high transport costs limiting intercity competition. And fifth, the characteristic form of competition was oligopolistic. Sixth, master printers had a valuable combination of skills and knowledge and business contacts. Seventh, when printers died without grown sons ready and able to assume control of their firms, therefore, it typically signified an immense blow to either of their firms and the competitive setting in the local media markets.



Technological and Structural Evolution of Motion Picture Technology from 1895-1925

Within a dozen years of the first public screenings of moveable pictures in the 1890s, the film industry has become a global mammoth, with vertically integrated transnational corporations controlling the entire production and distribution chain, from the manufacture of cameras, the making of the films themselves, owning the distribution exchanges, operating cinemas and even making the projectors used to display the films (Bowser, 1990). Culturally, for virtually the first time ever, huge numbers of people all over the world are experiencing the same images as the first true global mass medium is created. Nearly, all of the features of today’s film industry are in place by 1914 major studios, global marketing, extravagant budgets, the star system, bold special effects, the symbiotic relationship with the popular press. At the same time, films are seen as instruments of hegemony, means for trading nations to promote their goods and for ideologies to be disseminated. The nexus of money, power, politics and glamour, on a global scale, make the cinema into a completely new political and cultural phenomenon (Bowser, 1990.



The motion picture technology assesses the way production and presentation of pictures has evolved over time. It does not only associate to motion picture camera and the projector presentation but also other means of technology that are incorporated during production of pictures like sound recording which in most times made up of editing of both pictures and sound. Editing of sound and images is usually carried out when creating the effects and in producing animations that come out as motion in films and other forms of media (Bowser, 1990. However, motion technology in the year 1895, is just a blend of all those old techniques and the new techniques to form a better presentations (Bowser, 1990. It is very possible that in one piece of apparatus the state of art or the digital electronics may be working in tandem with a mechanical system that pre-existed or invented in the 1895 technology. However, the invention of motion pictures is not only focused on the prior technology of still photography but it is evident that it could be working on a combination of several more or less self-regulating technologies. It includes camera and the projector design, film production and handling. Sound recording and reproduction and lighting and measurement of lighting while processing a film.



The history of motion picture photography is based on the situation that human brain or understanding observes an illusion of constant movement from a succession of still images showing at a rate beyond 15 frames after each second. However, though posed sequential pictures had been introduced as earlier as 1860, but it is on that account to note that successive photography intended to give actual movement of images was never achieved up to the year of 1877. It was noted that when Eadweard Muybridge used approximately 12 equally spaced cameras to illustrate that how all the four hooves of a bolting horse left the ground at one point. But in the year 1877-78 a close associate to Muybridge developed a system of magnetic discharges to activate a stretched battery of 24 cameras ("motion-picture technology | Britannica.com," n.d.).  Muybridge usually produced his pictures in a still form, therefore, were also made up as strips for the popular parlor toy the zoetrope also known as the wheel of life. It was a rotating drum that persuaded a delusion of measure from a drawn or painted pictures with various pictures.



It is possible that when new technologies emerge and cultural forms collide, it is evident that there consequences and causalities. However, the details of such findings are still in dispute, it seems true that many people were unable to sustain or to hold onto their jobs and careers in the cinema industry in the late 1920’s because both the exhibitors and studios converted to sound (Musser & Harpole, 1990, p. 32).



Around the twentieth century in the United States, America popular music had dominated the entertainment industry through sales of sheet music and the live performance of its songs, in either public places or homes. According to Musser & Harpole (1990) the growing popularity of domestic music playing in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is illustrated by emergence of many piano sales in the United States. The emergence of the cinema was characterized by so some challenges, for instance, whereas in 1870 only one in 1540 American were able to buy a new piano. That kind of gap kept on being reduced up to 1890 where one in 874 had a piano. And in 1910, one in 252 people would own up a piano. Therefore in the year 1890 and 1909 the wholesale value of sheet music printed in the US multiplied.



However, all the factors or aspects that involved the emergence of the cinema in United States of America were characterized by cultural aspects. The cultural blindness to the radical challenge “a new technology posed was matched by the unfledged commercial and industrial structures which were needed to exploit them. Musser & Harpole, (1990) within the first twenty years of the century witnessed a growing awareness of the cultural implications of mass reproduction and the growth of economic standards that were able to promote and exploit mass culture. The growth in cultural and economic convergence can clearly be exhibited in cinemas during that period of development. It was also during that time that exhibitors and their power to influence music accompanied films. In regard to technology, there was always an option in case of a fall with sound on disc and that was the use of optical sound recording, with the sound on film (Musser & Harpole, 1990, p.37). Therefore, the scientific technique in regard to conversion of sound waves into sequences of light had been perceived positively before 1900. However, the first untested attempt to deliver an optical sound path during a film publishing was first introduce in 1904. But a project intended to produce the first optical sound path failed due to lack of a financial backing in the year of 1910 (Musser & Harpole, 1990, p. 38). However, in the year 1919 in Germany, the Tri-Ergon system was more efficient and proved more successful and it emerged as the foundation of the sound system which was illegally bought by the William Fox’s Fox film company in the year 1927. But in the year 1935, it was ruled that the system was illegal.



In early years for instance, 1830 to 1910, it was assessed that motion of pictures depended on the optical situation that was recognized as the persistence of vision and also the phi phenomenon. As earlier stated, the persistence of vision makes the brain to capture and store the images that have been cast upon the retina of the eye. The phenomena also allow the succession of the still frames on a motion-picture film ribbon that enhances continuous movement of pictures when projected with a right speed. A lot of optical toys had been used in regard to mounting of successive drawings of objects in motion on the face a coiling disk.



The Film industry in Europe was part of a wide movement towards continental amalgamation that had a brief currency in the 1920s, for instance, the European impression. The modern decades have observed a renewal of that idea and its enactment in the form of the European Community. The cooperative transmission of all the member countries’ films within a new continent-wide market is one of the many hopes inspired by that new regional body. So far the effort has caused only a small increase in the ability of films to travel widely beyond the borders of their countries of origin. In some ways the cumulative production of multi-national co-productions seems to have advanced the marginalized small nations in South America (Latin American) and in the Southeast Asia more than those within Europe.



Conclusively, the development of motion technology in ancient times acted as the fountain of development to all filming and media houses today. For instance, many filming firms today are more advanced and highly using innovative and electronic ways to carry out recording and filming events. Media in the past was not concretely developed though it is highly recommended as the mammoth of today’s advancements in regard to motion pictures in media houses.



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